Mitosis

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Mitosis

Mitosis is the process of cell division. It makes genetically identical cells. Cells that have copied their DNA divide and make copies of themselves. This process is called cell division.

Mitosis

Interphase is the phase between cell divisions. It is the longest phase of the cell cycle. Interphase is divided into two parts: the G1 and S phases. The cell grows, makes proteins, and prepares for cell division.

Types of Mitosis

  • Prophase
  • Metaphase
  • Anaphase
  • Telophase

Prophase

Prophase is the first phase of cell division, also known as mitosis. In this phase DNA molecules are not distinct they are interwined. In this phase initiation of condensation of chromosomal material takes place. The process of untangling of chromatin is called condensation. The centrosomes radiates out aster. Chromosomal matter condenses into chromosomes. Chromosomes are composed of two chromatids. These chromatids are attached together at centromere. At the end of prophase golgi complexes, endoplasmic reticulum, nucleolus and nuclear envelope disappears.

Metaphase

The very first event of the metaphase is the complete disintegration of nuclear envelope. Condensation of chromosomes gets completed in this phase. During this phase morphology of chromosomes can be studied very easily. Metaphasic chromosomes are made up of two sister chromatids which are held together by the centromere. Small disc shaped structure is present on the centromere is called kinetochores. All the chromosomes lie at a the equator with one spindle fibre attached on each pole. The plane of alignment of the chromosomes at metaphase is referred to as the metaphasic plate.

Anaphase

During the onset of anaphase, each chromosome split simultaneously into two daughter chromatids. These daughter chromatids are referred to as daughter nuclei. These daughter nuclei start migration towards their opposite poles. The centromere of each chromosome remains directed towards the poles and the leading edge, with the arms of the chromosomes are trailing behind

Telophase

This is the last phase of the M-Phase. In this phase chromosomes that have reached their respective poles decondense and lose their individuality. The individual chromosomes can no longer be seen. The nuclear membrane reappears. Two daughter nuclei are formed. The nucleolus, Golgi comples, and ER also reformed.

Significance of Mitosis

Mitosis is a process of cell division that is essential for cell growth and reproduction in eukaryotes. Mitosis is a tightly regulated process that occurs in all eukaryotic cells, from plants to animals, including humans. Cells that are not capable of undergoing mitosis are called somatic cells. The cells that are reproducing, in contrast, are called germ cells. Germ cells are the only cells that contain the full complement of genetic material. In sexual reproduction, germ cells will merge with another germ cell, producing a zygote that then divides into a new organism.
Mitosis is an essential part of the life cycle. It is the process by which each cell in an organism grows and divides to form two new cells, each with the same number and type of chromosomes as the original cell. The process of mitosis occurs in a series of stages starting with prophase and ending with telophase. In each phase, the cell grows and changes in structure as it prepares for cell division. The phases are separated by transition stages known as interphases.

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