What is Matter?

“Matter is the physical material of the universe, composed of atoms and molecules, which have mass and occupy space.” The matter is constantly changing and converting from one form to another. It can exist as a solid, liquid, or gas and can be made up of elements, compounds, mixtures, and solutions. The matter is the basis for understanding the physical and chemical properties of all substances. The matter is essential for all known forms of life, as it is the basis of all physical substances that make up the universe.

Types of Matter

There are three main types of matter: solids, liquids, and gases. Solids are made of tightly packed particles that don’t move around much and have a definite shape. Liquids can take on the shape of the container they are in and the particles can move around each other. Gases are made of particles that have a lot of energy and move around quickly, filling the whole container. Other types of matter, such as plasma and Bose-Einstein condensates, are also studied in chemistry.


Mixture is a combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined together.” It is a physical combination of two or more substances, where each substance retains its own properties. Mixtures can be in the form of a solid, liquid, or gas, and can also be homogeneous or heterogeneous. Examples of mixtures include air, soil, and saltwater. In contrast to a chemical compound, a mixture does not contain a fixed ratio of its components and can be separated into its components by physical means.

Homogeneous Mixture

Homogeneous mixtures, are mixtures in which the components are evenly distributed throughout the mixture.” These mixtures are made up of two or more substances that are combined together and the individual substances are not visible. Examples of homogeneous mixtures include salt water, sugar water, and vinegar. These mixtures can be further divided into two categories, namely, suspensions and colloids. Suspensions are mixtures where the particles are larger and settle over time while colloids are mixtures where the particles are small and never settle.

Heterogeneous Mixture

A heterogeneous mixture is a type of mixture where the components of the mixture can be seen and easily identified.” It is a combination of two or more compounds with different physical and chemical properties. Examples of heterogeneous mixtures include sand, soil, oil, and water. Unlike homogeneous mixtures, which are uniform throughout, the components of a heterogeneous mixture are not evenly distributed throughout. Heterogeneous mixtures can be separated by physical means, such as filtration or sedimentation.

Pure Substance

A pure substance is a material that is made of only one type of atom or molecule.” It is also known as a homogeneous mixture because all of the particles are the same. Examples of pure substances include water, oxygen, and table salt. Unlike a mixture, a pure substance cannot be separated into its components by physical means. This means that you cannot take a sample of water and separate it into oxygen and hydrogen. Pure substances also have constant physical and chemical properties, meaning that each sample of a pure substance will have the same properties.


“An element is a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means.” Elements are made up of atoms, which are the smallest unit of a chemical element. There are 118 known elements, which are organized into the periodic table. Elements are the building blocks of all matter and are essential for life. Each element has unique properties that make it distinct from other elements. For example, oxygen is a gas at room temperature, while the iron is solid.


“Compound is a combination of two or more distinct elements that have been chemically combined to form a new substance.” Compounds can be composed of elements from the same group, such as two hydrogens and one oxygen-creating water, or from different groups, such as carbon and oxygen forming carbon dioxide. Compounds have unique physical and chemical properties that are different from their individual elements. Examples of compounds include water, salt, sugar, and baking soda. Compounds are essential for life.

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